A Complete Insight on Renal Screening Methods

Biotechnology & Healthcare General Knowledge in Biotech & Healthcare
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Introduction

A pair of healthy Kidneys filter about a half cup of blood every minute, removing wastes and extra fluids to make urine. The urine flows from the kidneys to the bladder through two thin ureters, one on each side of the urinary bladder. The kidneys, ureters, and bladder are parts of the urinary tract.
Kidneys also filter out various acids produced by cellular metabolism of the body and maintain a healthy balance of electrolytes and salts – such as calcium, sodium, potassium and phosphorus – in the blood.
The filtering and excreting mechanism is carried out by the minute nephrons (functional unit) of the Kidneys

Your kidneys also produce hormones that helps

  • Maintain blood pressure
  • Produce Red Blood Cells
  • Maintain bones’ strength

Renal Function Tests

Renal function tests are done to evaluate Kidney function. Renal health is imperative for healthy survival and various blood tests including serum creatinine, Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), Glomerular filtration rate (GFR), Creatinine clearance ratio, urine Micro albumin, Albumin to Creatinine Ratio and various urine tests are performed to assess the excretory function of the kidneys, consequently determining the overall health status of an individual.
Apart from these, imaging procedures like CT scan and Ultrasound are also performed for diagnostics purpose of the kidneys.
Renal function tests give insight to the causes, treatment and medication for the underlying pathological conditions.

Serum Creatinine
Serum creatinine is an important indicator of Kidney function because of its unchanged excretion through Kidneys as a byproduct of muscle metabolism. If the filtration in the Kidneys are deficient, blood creatinine levels rise. Blood creatinine alone can be used to calculate estimated GFR (eGFR).

Uric Acid
Uric Acid kit is intended for the quantitative measurement of Uric acid concentrations in serum or plasma samples by spectrophotometry. Uric acid is the major product of the catabolism of the purine nucleosides, adenosine and guanosine. Purines from catabolism of dietary nucleic acid are converted to uric acid directly. The daily synthesis rate of uric acid is approximately 400 mg, dietary sources contribute another 300mg. Overproduction of uric acid causes hyperuricemia.

Microalbumin

Microalbuminuria is a marker of an increased risk of diabetic nephropathy as well as cardiovascular disease in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus as well as with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen)
BUN is another indicator for proper functioning of the Kidneys. This test measures the amount of urea nitrogen found in blood. The liver produces Ammonia in protein metabolism. The Nitrogen in Ammonia combines with Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen to form Urea, which is excreted via Kidneys.

When Renal Function Tests are Done?
Renal function tests are done when there is a suspicion of damage to the Kidney cells. Especially when there is:

  • Diabetes
  • High Blood Pressure
  • Heart Disease
  • Liver Disease

Methods To Determine Serum Creatinine, BUN, Microalbumin
and Uric Acid

  • Alkaline picrate method is a modified Jae’s methodology, used to estimate serum creatinine where the
    deproteinization of samples are not required.
  • Talke and Schubert’s GLDH methodology gives the direct estimation of Urea where Urea is hydrolysed by Urease. The decrease in concentration is measured to give accurate results.
  • Trinder’s reaction to produce dye as end product which is directly proportional to uric acid present is a high quality method for Uric acid determination
  • Latex Turbidimetry method is used for the detection of excretion rate of Microalbumin

Clinreact – Clinical Chemistry Reagents

  • Comprehensive test menus for enzymes and substrates.
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  • Parameter available with dierent selection of methods (IFCC or DGKC).
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  • Each parameter oer low Interference & ATCS ensure minimized turbidity caused by Lipemia.
  • Suitable for semi & fully automated analyzer application
  • CE marked reagents ensure best quality to suit your laboratory requirements
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